How much influence do the BRICS wield on the world stage?

China warns against expanding military alliances and weaponising economic sanctions. The world’s top five emerging economies – Brazil, Russi...



China warns against expanding military alliances and weaponising economic sanctions.

The world’s top five emerging economies – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, known as BRICS – are holding their annual summit virtually for the third time this year due to the pandemic.

The meeting is taking place against a complex geopolitical backdrop, from the war in Ukraine and trade disputes between China and the US, to a global economy trying to recover from the fallout of COVID-19.Chinese President Xi Jinping – who’s hosting this year’s summit – has criticised the West’s handling of the Ukraine crisis and called for co-ordination to prevent disruptions to the global economic recovery.But what role can the BRICS play? 

Russian President Vladimir Putin on Thursday called on the leaders of Brazil, India, China and South Africa to cooperate in the face of "selfish actions" from the West, as Moscow is pummelled by Western sanctions over Ukraine.

"Only on the basis of honest and mutually beneficial cooperation can we look for ways out of this crisis situation, which developed in the global economy because of the ill-conceived, selfish actions of certain states," Putin said in televised remarks at the BRICS leaders virtual summit, referring to Western sanctions on Russia.

He said these countries "using financial mechanisms, in fact, shift their own mistakes in macroeconomic policy onto the whole world". 

"We are convinced that now, more than ever, the leadership of BRICS countries is needed to develop a unifying, positive course towards the formation of a truly multipolar system of inter-government relations," Putin said. 

He added that BRICS nations "can count on the support of many Asian, African and Latin American states striving to pursue an independent policy". 

Washington and Brussels have hit Moscow with unprecedented sanctions after Putin sent troops into pro-Western Ukraine on February 24. 

The barrage of crippling sanctions has pushed Putin to seek new markets and strengthen ties with countries in Africa and Asia.Argentina’s possible accession to the BRICS – the grouping of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa – has been on the table for more than a decade, but there has never been any serious attempt until now. Xi Jinping’s invitation to Argentina’s President Alberto Fernández to participate in the 2022 summit, which convened virtually on June 23 with China as host, renewed the debate regarding this possibility, which still seems remote

This is not the first time an Argentine president has participated in a BRICS meeting: Mauricio Macri attended the summit in South Africa in 2018 and Cristina Fernandez in Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2014, following an invitation from Russian President Vladimir Putin.

After the visit of current President Alberto Fernandez to Russia (prior to the invasion of Ukraine) and China (in the context of the Winter Olympic Games) at the beginning of the year and of Foreign Minister Santiago Cafiero to India, the idea of Argentina formally joining BRICS has now been revived by the Argentine government and has garnered some distant support among BRICS members.

It is not clear how possible a formal incorporation would be and what sense it would make in the current global context, with Russia actively invading Ukraine. That said, Cafiero participated in the virtual meeting of BRICS foreign ministers in May and Fernandez was invited to the presidents summit.

The current Argentine government has had an erratic foreign policy that does not make its position clear in several geopolitical aspects. With that in mind, it’s relevant to review the state of Argentina’s relations with BRICS countries and reflect on its possible incorporation to the bloc.

After all, as Segio Skobalski, a Ph.D. in international relations and global affairs expert pointed out, “Argentina’s formal incorporation into the BRICS requires full consensus of all members as well as a complex administrative and diplomatic process.”

China is currently Argentina’s main trading partner outside South America. Since Nestor Kirchner came to power in 2003, China has taken on an unprecedented relevance in Argentina’s trade relations. In 2004, during then-Chinese President Hu Jintao’s visit to Buenos Aires, the two leaders signed a strategic partnership that later expanded with the beginning of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner’s first term and even continued with the arrival of Mauricio Macri, from the opposite political wing, to the presidency. Commodity exports and public works served as central axes for the relationship.

Despite the multimillion-dollar investment announcements and several failed projects, Chinese state-owned companies in Argentina have carried out few public works through government-to-government loans with sovereign guarantees. The renovation of the Belgrano Cargas Railway and the Cauchari Solar Park are perhaps the most successful projects, in addition to some investments especially in sectors such as mining and renewable energy.

As regards BRICS, there were comments from Chinese Foreign Ministry officials in 2014 regarding a possible Argentine membership, but no more than that. Xi’s current invitation to Fernandez can be seen as a return favor for the Argentine president having attended the inauguration of the Olympic Games, where, he sealed Argentina’s inclusion in the Belt and Road Initiative.

However, there have been some short-circuits in the relationship that raise questions regarding Argentina’s possible inclusion in the BRICS.

In a speech made at the Central Economic Work Conference in December 2021, Xi negatively analyzed certain social policies that fit the model taken by the Argentine government: “Some Latin American countries in the past have engaged in populism, and welfare in these countries has raised a group of ‘lazy people’ with unearned incomes.” The Chinese leader continued: “…‘Welfare-ism’ that exceeds one’s ability is unsustainable, and it will inevitably bring about serious economic and political problems.”

Will the Chinese government seek to deepen economic relations with a country it considers in this way? Or will it prioritize the Asian giant’s need for raw materials and minerals?

As if this were not enough, a few weeks ago, during an official trip to Europe, Fernandez declared on the German channel DW that he was “an Argentine Europeanist.” He further stated that “China is a great power but it does not have strong cultural ties with Latin America, it has no history with Latin America.” This is not a positive sign for a relationship that Argentina is supposed to seek to consolidate and deepen.

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Cafiero, Argentina’s foreign minister, was received on his latest tour of India by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Indian External Affairs Minister Subrahmanyam Jaishankar.

Cafiero also participated in the Raisina Dialogue, where Jaishankar highlighted the growth of business with Latin America and with Argentina in particular, giving as an example soybean oil imports.

India is Argentina’s fourth largest trading partner and the fourth largest destination of Argentina’s exports. Certain Argentine agribusiness sectors have been stressing the importance of diversifying markets and not depending on China for a large portion of exports. These companies are worried about the remote but possible alignment of Xi with Putin, which may affect trade, and the reprimarization of commodities that trading with China implies, which is not so marked with countries such as India or Vietnam.

It is not minor that India’s foreign minister highlighted soybean oil imports from Argentina, as China is the main buyer of soybeans worldwide. Both India and China require products that Argentina exports, as does Brazil. Is there room for this trade competition within the BRICS?

At the same time, it is also important to analyze for both countries the focus of their strategic partnership in this multipolar world and within the framework of Argentina’s relations with China.

As Hari Seshasayee, a specialist in India-Latin America relations and Global Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center, said, “In terms of global investment, trade or loans, China’s presence in Latin America is far ahead of India’s.”

But the Argentina-India relationship is growing and the Modi government’s recent moves to eliminate import tariffs on oils can benefit and grow this bilateral link.

Meanwhile, Seshasayee is not very clear about the way forward for BRICS as it currently stands, much less the question of expansion. “Within the group there are two countries, India and China, which currently have an unresolved border conflict,” he pointed out.

“Russia’s position has become much more complex because of the war in Ukraine,” Seshasayee added. “I don’t know what actions the BRICS could take during these geopolitical tensions, and whether they could reach an agreement among all the members.

“If Argentina is really interested in joining the BRICS, perhaps it would be better for them to wait for a better time.”

It’s also worth noting that Indian officials have not made a clear statement regarding the possibility of Argentina’s membership.

Different Argentine governments have had close relations with Putin’s Russia for a decade. Following the invitation to participate in the BRICS summit in 2014, Fernández de Kirchner visited the Kremlin and signed some 20 agreements with Putin on investment and trade, and even nuclear energy.

In 2018, it was Macri’s turn to visit Moscow. The president also signed some agreements with Putin, including one for joint uranium exploration and production.

Earlier in 2022, Fernandez visited the Kremlin as well. In a case of truly bad timing, he told Putin that Argentina should be “Russia’s gateway to Latin America” just weeks before the beginning of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Argentina’s foreign policy has taken a somewhat vague position on the conflict that began in February 2022.

It is difficult to decipher what benefits Argentina would gain from joining BRICS given the current geopolitical situation.

“Argentina would not gain anything substantial [from joining BRICS]. It would begin to participate in discussions at the highest level with these countries, but it is something it already has in the G-20,” said Guisto of the Sino-Argentine Observatory. He doesn’t see much potential “not in terms of economic benefits either,” as that is a topic better suited “more for bilateral ties with the members.”

Meanwhile, joining BRICS could have negative consequences from Argentina’s relations with the United States and Europe. As Skobalski explained, “After Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the U.S. promotes the economic and political isolation of Russia with sanctions and seeks to exclude it from the G-20.” This could affect Argentina’s position prior to the G-20 leaders’ meeting in Indonesia at the end of the year

Aside from the geopolitics, Argentina’s presence in the BRICS could undermine Brazil’s position by adding to the group not only another country from the same continent but also a commercial competitor in the main agro-industrial markets – China and India among them.

There are thus several unanswered questions regarding Argentina’s interest in jointing BRICS. Does Argentina need to enhance its already complex geopolitical position? Does BRICS need a Spanish-speaking member? Does BRICS need another full member in South America? Does Brazil want to further pave the way for Argentina in markets where the two countries are competitors?

If I had to predict, I would say that “BRICSA” only exists in the dreams of certain Argentine government officials and will never see the light of day. But then, if we had been told in 2019 that there was going to be a global pandemic and a war in Europe, we would not have believed it either.

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crash,1,jews,2,Jews/Isarael,1,Jirga,1,Joblessness,2,Jodhpur,1,Joe-Biden,1,Jordon,4,journalis,2,Journalism,1,journalist,84,journalists,12,judge,1,judgement,15,Judiciary,94,juma-tul-wida,1,justice,3,Kabul,7,Kabul Airport,4,kabul blast,1,Kabul Blasts,2,Kaghan,1,Kamala Harris,1,Karachi,1,Karatarapur,1,karate,1,Kartarpur,2,kashmiir/UNGA,1,Kashmir,134,Kashmir Rallies,1,kashmir/italy,1,Kazakhstan,4,Khalistan,2,Khartoum,1,Khunjarab,1,Kickbacks,2,Kidnapped,1,KIDNAPPING,42,Kidnapping in Nigeria,1,killed,4,Killer,1,killer killed,1,Killers held,1,Killing,5,killings,1,kiln,1,king Salman,1,Kite Flying,1,Kosovo,1,Kurd-Turkish,2,Kurram Agency,1,Kuwait,4,Kyiv,1,Kyrgyzstan,1,L.G Election,1,L.G. 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Grave,4,Mass Killer,1,Massacre,10,Matrimony,3,Mausoleums,1,MAY DAY,1,Mayor,1,Mayorship,2,Meat export,1,Medal,1,Media,234,Media Tycoon,1,Media Women,1,Mediaman,1,Mediamen,1,Medic shot dead,1,Medical,1,Medical Exam,1,Medical Team,1,Medicines,3,Medics,1,Medics punished,1,meeting,2,Meeting of PAC,1,Memoirs,1,Memorial Day,1,Mentally Retarded,1,Message,10,Metro,3,Mexico,5,Miami,1,Middle East,1,Migrants,172,Militants,7,Military,3,Military Coup,1,Military court,2,military exercise,1,Military Police,1,Military rule,1,Militia,2,Minar Pakistan,1,Mine collapsed,1,Minerals,1,Miners,4,Mines,4,Minister,1,Minor Soldiers,1,Minorities,6,Minority,2,MIRACLE,6,mis,1,mishap,705,mishaps,9,Miss India,1,Miss Universe,1,Missile,9,Missing,2,Missing people,8,Missing Persons,1,Missing Students,1,Misssing,6,MLA held/Cyber Crime,1,Modern Women,2,Mogadishu,1,Mohsin Dawar,1,molestation,1,Molten,1,Monarchy,2,Monetary,1,monetary policy,2,Money Laundering,24,Money Transfer,2,Monument,2,Monuments,1,Moon,4,Morocco,1,Moscow,1,Mosque,8,mosques,1,Mountaineer,9,Mourners,1,Moustache,1,movie,2,MQM-London,1,Mud Sliding,2,Mud-sliding,1,Mufti Qavi,1,Mughal,1,Murder,53,Murder Case,3,Murder for Samosa,1,Murdered,2,Murderous Attempt,1,Muslim Activist,1,Muslim Brotherhood,1,Muslim girl burnt,1,Muslim states,1,Muslims,10,Mutilated,1,Myanmar,20,n,1,N.A.B,1,NAB,55,NAB court,2,NADRA,1,Nagaland/India,1,Narcotics,56,Narrow Escape,1,National,1603,National Day,1,National Elections,1,National Savings,1,NATO,1,Nature,3,Naval Officers,1,Nawaz,1,Nawaz Sharif,3,NCHR,1,NCOC,1,Negligence,1,Negotiations,1,Neighbourhood,1,Neo-Natal,1,Nepal,1,network,1,Neutrality,1,New City,1,New Delhi,1,New Govt,1,New Plan,1,New York,1,newspaper,2,NFC,1,NGO,2,Nicaeagua,1,Niger,4,Nigeria,17,NightClub,1,No Confidence,1,No-Confidence,1,Nomination,1,North Korea,5,North Waziristan,1,Notice,1,Notification,1,Nuclear,11,Nuclear Power Plant,1,Nusic,1,O.I.C,1,Oath Taking ceremony,1,Oath-Taking,1,obituary,64,Occupation,1,occurred at a facility owned by the Ruiqi Daily Necessities Company.,1,Ocean,1,Oceans,1,ODIs,1,Off loaded,2,Officer,2,OIC MOOT,3,OIC Summit,2,oil,2,Oil & Gas,4,oil Mills,1,Oil Scarcity,1,Oil tankers caught fire,1,Oil Vessel,1,Oil-Well,2,Old Traditions,1,Ombudsman,1,Omicrone,1,One Dayer,1,Onlinegame,1,Operation,19,Opposition,4,Oppotunity,1,Orange line,1,Organisations,1,Orphans,1,OSCAR AWARD,1,Outage,2,Outcome,1,Overseas pakistani,8,Overturned,1,Oxygen,1,Pak Afghan,1,Pak Army,1,Pak Television,1,Pak-Afghan,2,Pak-Afghan Border,2,Pak-Afghan-Iran,1,Pakistan,3,Pakistan Day,1,Pakistani,1,Palace,1,Palentinians,4,Palestine,24,Paliament,1,Pandemic,4,Pandora leaks,3,Panjshir,3,Papal visit to Iraq,2,parade,1,Pardon,3,Parents,2,Paris,1,Parliament,26,Partiality,1,Partition,2,Passed away,3,Passengers,4,Passport,4,Pastimes,1,Patroleum,1,PDM Rally,1,PDMA disbanded,1,peace keeper,1,Peace Moot,1,Peacekeepers,1,PEMRA,2,Pendemic,1,Pensioners,1,Pervez Elahi,2,Peshawar,2,pest,1,Petroleum,29,pharoa,1,philippine,6,Phone Scam,1,Photos,1,Picnic,1,Pilgrims,15,Pilot killed,1,pilots,5,pipeline,1,PIR,1,Pirates,2,plane,7,Plane caught fire,2,Plane Crash,12,Plane Shot down,1,Planning & Development,1,plant,1,player,3,Players,1,Plough into crowd,1,Plunge into river,1,PM Tour to KSA,1,Poet,1,Police,203,Police Officer,1,Policy rate,1,Polio,1,Political,1,Politician,8,POLITICS,908,Politics of AJK,1,polling,2,pollution,13,Poly gamy,1,pope,2,Pope'sVisit to Iraq,1,Population,3,Pornography,5,Porters,1,Post,1,Post Mortem,1,Post-Coup,1,Posting,1,poverty,3,power,4,Power Tariff,1,prayer,2,Pregnancies,1,pregnant,1,President,5,President Ghani’s spokesman Sediq Sediqi criticised the development and said that the meeting couldn’t help the peace process.,1,Presidential,1,Presidential Candidates,1,Press,2,Press Club,1,Press Talk,1,price hike,1,Priest,1,Prime Minister,10,Princess,3,Prison,119,prison break,2,prisoner,15,prisoners,43,prisoners freed,2,prisoners swap,1,Prisoners-swap,2,prisons,4,prize,1,Prnography,1,Probe,2,proceedings,2,Procession,1,Productivity,1,Products,1,Professor,1,Professor killed,1,Profest,1,Prohibit,1,project,1,Promotions,4,Propaganda,3,Properties,2,property,1,Prophet,1,Proscribed,5,prosecution,2,prostitution,1,Protest,267,Protest /War Crime,1,Protest against Law,1,protest in HK,1,Protest March,1,Protest rally,4,Prtoest,1,PTA,1,PTI,2,PTI Rally,1,ptisoner,1,PTV officials,1,Pullout,3,Punishment,6,Punjab,1,Punjab Assembly,5,Punjab Politics,1,Qadiani,1,Qandeel Case,1,Qatar,1,Qul Khawani,1,Qureshi,1,R.Congo,1,Radicals,1,Radio Pakistan,1,Rahul Gandhi,1,Raid,1,Raid on Newspaper,1,Raided,1,Rail Link,1,Railway,39,Railway Workers,1,Rainstorm,1,Rallies,1,Rally,8,Rally in Bangkok,1,Ramadan,1,Rangers,4,Ranjit Singh,1,Ransom,1,Rape by Police,1,Rape Cases,1,raped,1,raping,1,rapist,1,Rasism,1,RCD Route,1,Reaction,3,Reaction on Blasphemy,1,Real 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incident,1,Theft,2,Theft/Murder,1,Thrash,1,Threat,2,Three balsts,1,Three explosion,1,Tik Tok,3,Tobacco,1,Torch a bus,1,Tornado,4,Torrential Rain,1,Torture,2,Tourism,50,tourisn,2,Tourist Boat,1,Tourist Bus,1,Tourists,1,Toxic Gas,2,Toxic Liquor,2,Toxicity,1,Tractors,1,Trade,85,Trade Union,8,Traders,10,Traditions,10,Traffic,3,Trafficking,1,Tragedies,1,Tragedy,4,Tragic death,1,Train,3,Train Collision,3,Train derailment,1,Train Mishap,1,Train service,1,Train/Plane,1,Training,3,Trans Gender,4,Transaction,1,Transfer,1,transgender,10,Transit Trade,1,Transport,8,Transportation,2,Travel,451,travel crimes,1,Travellers,2,traveloque,1,Trawler,1,Treason,1,Treatment,1,Tree Plantation,2,trekkers,1,Trespassers,1,Trial,1,Tribal Area,1,Tribal Clash,3,Tribal Traditions,1,Tribunal,1,Trip,1,Troops,3,Tropical storms,1,Tubisia,1,Tukey,1,Tunisia,5,Tunnel,1,Tunnel collapsed,1,Turkey,4,Turkey visit,1,Turkish Generals,1,TV Channels,2,TVChannels,1,Tweet,1,Typhoon Hagibis,2,Tyranny,4,Tyrants,1,U-Turn,1,UAE,1,UAE President,2,UAE Laws,1,UAE-AID,1,Uganda,2,Uighur,1,Uighur/China,1,UK Parliamentarians,1,Ukrain war,1,Ukraine,22,Ukraine War,3,Ulema,1,Umra,2,Umra season,1,Underage Marriages,1,unemployment,6,UNGA,1,United Arab Emirates,1,United Kingdom,9,United Nations,18,United States,38,University,4,UNO,3,UNO mission,1,UNSC,2,Uprising,1,Uproar/Israel,1,US sailor,1,US diplomat,1,US Elections,2,US fired Rocket,1,US Flight,1,US General,1,US military,1,US NAVY,1,US Politics,1,US prisoner,1,US Troops,1,US vs China,1,US-Israel,1,US-Theft,1,US/Afghan,1,US/Pak,1,Usury,2,Utility Stores,2,Vacancies,1,Vaccination,3,Vaccine,1,Vandalise,1,Vandalism,2,Varisty,1,Vatican,1,Vegetable,1,vehicle,4,Vehicles Gutted,1,Veil,1,vendetaa,3,Vengeance,3,Verdict,1,Victory,1,Viiolations,1,villages,1,Violation,4,Violations,1,Violence,5,Virus,1,Visa,5,Visa allowed,2,Visa Policy,2,visit,2,Visit to Iran,1,Visit to KSA,1,Visitors,2,Visual Artist,1,Vital Organs,1,Voice of Azan,1,Volcano,10,volunteer,1,War Crime,5,Warship,2,water,11,Water Filtration Plant,1,Water issue,1,Water Plant,1,Water Scarcity,1,WAVES,1,Waziristan,3,Weapon,1,Weapons,14,weather,278,Webinar,1,wedding,23,Wedding Knot,1,Weddings,4,Weekly Holiday,1,Welcome,1,wheat/agriculture,2,which is under investigation,1,WHO volunteers,1,Wikileaks,1,Wild fire,5,Wildfire,3,Wildlife,6,Will has no limits,1,wine,1,Withdrawal,1,woman,74,Women,169,Women Chamber,1,Women in Afghanistan,1,Women killing,1,Women March,1,Women Protest,1,Women Rally,1,Women test,1,Women Trafficker,1,Women Traffickers,1,Women trafficking,8,Women/ Houthis,1,Wonders,1,Worker,1,Workers,13,Working class,9,World Cup,1,World Politics,3,World War,3,World War-III,1,World War=II,1,Worship place,4,Writer,1,Writers,1,Yacht,1,Yatch,1,Yazidis,2,Yemen,35,youth,5,Yum-i-Shahadat,1,
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South Punjab News : How much influence do the BRICS wield on the world stage?
How much influence do the BRICS wield on the world stage?
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South Punjab News
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